What is Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act (FIRPTA)?
This article covers What You Need To Know About Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act – FIRPTA.
The Tax Act For Foreign Investors
FIRPTA stands for “Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act,” which became law in 1980. This Federal Law protects the U.S. Government’s interest in collecting taxes owed from real estate transactions involving foreign sellers.
What you need to know about foreign investment in real property tax act (FIRPTA) is that it’s important because it can hurt a buyer or a seller. The Foreign Investment In Real Estate Tax Act is the law that allows potential income tax money to be withheld from foreign citizens when they sell property in the United States. This Foreign Investor Tax Act first became law in 1980 but was often unknown due to lower sales prices.
The FIRPTA Seller Exemptions
FIRPTA excludes all property that is sold under $300,000. This Act was not an issue in most U.S. cities because properties sold over the limit were not as common as 40 years later, in 2020. If FIRPTA affects you, you need to apply for a seller exemption.
An exemption, if granted, is where the IRS lowers or eliminates the withholding amount. Withholding 15% of THE SALES PRICE from the Seller can be a lot of money!
Congress enacted the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (FIRPTA) as Subtitle C of Title XI (the “Revenue Adjustments Act of 1980”) of the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1980, Pub. L. No. 96-499, 94 Stat. 2599, 2682 (Dec. 5, 1980).
Why Should You Care About FIRPTA?
All Home Buyer’s in the U.S. should consider this law important because so many foreign investors now own property in this country. This tax needs to be withheld on homes bought/sold over $300,000 if the seller is a Foreign National. If the seller is not aware of this law until the title or escrow company tells him, he’ll probably want to apply for the exclusion. The IRS waiver takes 30-45 days to approve.
What this means to you:
- The withholding amount is 15% of the SALES PRICE- so a minimum of $45,000. Most people don’t want this money tied up for months to a year, so they’ll want to apply for the exclusion. This probably means that your moving into the home will be held up for the same 30-45 days that approval takes.
- If YOU don’t see a signed affidavit or a waiver by the IRS, and if they don’t pay this tax, you might. FIRPTA states that the BUYER is the responsible party for payment of this tax to the IRS! Since taxes are not normally part of a Realtor’s job, we learned about FIRPTA to protect you. I hope that most Realtors know about FIRPTA. However, since we sold Real Estate in Las Vegas for 15 years before learning this law, I wouldn’t count on your Realtor knowing this.
What Is A Worst-Case Scenario Involving FIRPTA?
You bought your house two years ago. You never met or saw Mr. Seller, so of course, you never even thought about what Mr. Seller’s nationality was. His name is David Smith, and Mr. Seller Smith was from Australia. A few months after you got your house, Mr. Smith moved the family back to Australia.
The title company did not do a FIRPTA withhold from Mr. Smith’s proceeds, and he did not file the FIRPTA form or get an exclusion. Now the IRS wants their tax money, and YOU, THE BUYER, WOULD OWE IT!
According to FIRPTA, if the seller is a Foreign Person, the buyer is responsible for having up to 15% of the SALES PRICE withheld at the close of escrow as a tax. If you are a Foreign Person Seller, you need to consult a tax expert. You may qualify for an exclusion. Exclusions can take 30 or more days, so plan ahead!
What Happens If The FIRPTA Tax Is Not Withheld?
Since the law makes the tax the buyer’s responsibility, the IRS could and has come after the buyer for payment. Because of this possibility, it is important for a buyer to ask questions and have an experienced agent representing them. Do yourself a favor and read 4 Reasons To AVOID FSBOs!
What Is FIRPTA’s Definition Of A Foreign Person
According to Wikipedia, Foreign persons include individuals who are not U.S. citizens or resident aliens, corporations organized outside the United States, and nonresident estates and trusts. See 26 USC 7701. Note that partners, not partnerships, are subject to tax, so foreign status is determined at the partner level. However, see withholding tax for an overview of exceptions regarding foreign partnerships.
WHAT IF THERE ARE MULTIPLE CITIZENSHIPS OWNERS FOR A SINGLE PROPERTY?
What happens when 2 or more people own the house, and one owner is a Foreign Person? If the others are U.S. Citizens, the IRS has actually used common sense about this! The answer is that the percentage withheld is based on the percentage of ownership that the Foreign Person owns.
If Affected By The Foreign Seller Tax:
- Meet with us to strategize a plan for you to sell your property
- We provide you with the necessary forms to sell your home and apply it to reduce or eliminate the withholding
- Your property can be marketed but will not close unless there are withhold monies or an exclusion
- If the IRS declines your exclusion request, 15% of the sales price gets withheld at closing. If that is not enough, you need to provide funds to finalize the sale
Reasons For Exclusion Approval
The IRS may agree with a person to substitute a different asset waiving the withhold. Also, if you sell the property at a loss, the 15% withhold amount exceeds this year’s tax liability, or if you gift your profit to a spouse, the IRS grants your exclusion request.
Other FIRPTA Exemptions
YOU MUST STILL APPLY. However, Professional Athletes and Foreign Government-Related People are exempt from FIRPTA. Students, Teachers, Trainees, and their Dependents who have lived in the U.S. for over 5 years are also exempt.
“Substantial Presence” exempts people who have lived in the U.S. for over 31 days “this year” AND 183 days in the last three years. The “days” are counted this way: each day present in the U.S. this year counts as one. One day for every 3 days present in the U.S. counts as one for last year and one day for every 6 days present for the year before. If you meet the 31-day rule AND the 183-day rule, you may be exempt.
How Do You Get Your Money Back From FIRPTA?
Subsequently, you get your withheld money back if you are owed a tax refund after filing a standard U.S. Tax Return.
DISCLAIMER: I know about the FIRPTA rules because I sell Foreign People’s Real Estate for them in Las Vegas, Nevada. Because I am not an Accountant or Attorney, I cannot provide you with any tax or legal advice. Therefore, if you think FIRPTA might apply to you, please seek professional advice.
if In Doubt, Consult An Attorney
FIRPTA is a complicated law, and our blog only scratches the surface. If you are selling your home and think FIRPTA affects you, text or call for an appointment with us.
What You Need To Know About Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act (FIRPTA) is complex and can even be scary. We have dealt with FIRPTA and Foreign Investor Tax Exemptions many times. Make sure that you have a Realtor with extensive experience with the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act on your team.
If you have an inexperienced Realtor, please consult an attorney. You should also consult your accountant to verify that they are familiar with the law.
Our Number 1 Goal with every client is to protect them. If you are going to buy or sell a property in Las Vegas in the future, Contact Us today at – 702-750-7599 or fill out the form at the bottom of this page.
This blog was written by Kurt Grosse with Realty One Group in Las Vegas. Kurt is a Top-Producing 25 Year Realtor in Las Vegas, Nevada. His skills as a former Nevada Building Engineer (PE, CE) make him the most unique and the best Realtor in Las Vegas, Henderson, and North Las Vegas.
When you buy a new construction property, Kurt Monitors the Construction until the drywall is up, sending you pictures and videos every week. He and his team look for and show you defects and flaws that they find on the floor, walls, or ceilings while viewing pre-owned homes. Protect yourself by having Kurt and Terri protect you.
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Questions You Should Ask About FIRPTA:
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